UFT 431,3, preliminary version

This is a very good summary by GJE, the attractive force between neutron and proton in m theory is the attractive m force inferred in UFT417 from Euler Lagrenge analysis and from Hamilton analysis in UFT427. The two classical dynamics systems gave the same m force. This m force can become infinite at the resonance condition, even if a proton near a nucleus such as Ni(64) is not moving. The experimenter designs the conditions under which the force becomes infinite by using the techniques described here by GJE. After Chadwick discovered the neutron, theories were proposed by Dirac, Heisenberg and Fermi to explain how a nucleus could be made up of neutrons and protons. Fermi suggested an exchange force, and Yukawa inferred that the exchanged particle was the meson, or pion, with finite mass. The m theory explains the production of the pion by identifying the m force with the Yukawa force. The m force can explain any exchange particle by identifying it with forces derived from other potentials, such as the Reid potential. However the m force is the most fundamental force because it is a property of space itself. The difference between the Cockcroft Walton experiment and low energy nuclear fusion is the relativistic momentum of the proton. Without resonance the proton has to have a very high relativistic momentum to overcome the Coulomb barrier. With resonance this is not needed and low energy nuclear reaction takes place. In LENR no gamma rays are emitted by observation and many Government and corporate patents and safety certificates. In the atom smashing experiments gamma rays are emitted. For example the collision of a very high energy electron and positron produces two photons at gamma ray frequency and particle annihilation takes place (see UFT247 and UFT248). In low energy nuclear reactions there are no gamma rays because the incoming proton may be static, and the nickel nucleus may be static. In other words nickel powder immersed in hydrogen gas. The binding energy in LENR is released in the form of heat and very intense visible and ultra violet radiation emitted by nickel vapour. In the standard model the force between neutrons and protons is a residual force of an even stronger force that binds quarks together. The big problem with the standard model is that quarks have never been observed in the free state. Only hadrons are observed. The nuclear strong force between protons and neutrons is different from the QCD strong force between quarks. The attractive nuclear strong force between neutrons and protons decreases rapidly with distance and the Coulomb repulsion between protons decreases less rapidly. So heavy nuclei are unstable, notably radium and uranium 235. The Ni(64) isotope is overloaded with neutrons, it is the isotope with the highest number of neutrons. The extra proton makes it unstable, and it transmutes into copper 63, mega electron volts of energy and other particles. It is worth developing the m force with various dm(r)/ dr and m(r). The m force inside the nucleus might become positive at short distances and at resonance the nucleus disintegrates. If the m force is negative at resonance the nucleus becomes very tightly bound.

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