This is easily googled up. They were introduced by Pauli in 1927 and applied to the Schroedinger equation in 1927 to give the Pauli equation. They were used by Dirac in 1928 in his original version of the Dirac equation, which has recently been developed into the ECE fermion equation without negative energy. It was realized later that the Pauli matrices form the basis vectors of the SU(2) representation. In the sixties Gell-Mann introduced his matrices to form the basis of the SU(3) representation for nuclear strong field theory, which was deduced from ECE theory in some of the first ECE papers. In inferring electron spin orbit resonance (ESOR) I simply used the SU(2) representation of the Zeeman effect, and some simple operator algebra in quantum mechanics. This should be understandable to a good freshman student. ESOR can now be extended to NMR. In quantum mechanics the quantized spin is defined as the vector operator:

S psi = (1/2) h bar sigma psi

where sigma has become a vector operator, which may act on a wavefunction or a function such as a magnetic flux density B. Finding a new spectroscopy in 2013 opens up a myriad of opportunities for experiments and computation on supercomputers, and is much more useful than an infinite argumen tabout something that deos not exist, like a Higgs boson, black holes or big bang, an argument in which dogmatists refuse to let go of ideas until hell freezes over. They need global warming to unfreeze, another idea they refuse to let go of. That is pecisely why Bacon introduced science.

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