Archive for November, 2006

Howard Johnson Patent

November 29, 2006


Subject: Fwd: Howard Johnson Patent
Date: Thu, 30 Nov 2006 01:20:20 EST

Myron,

Page 1 of HJ patent is attached. There are 11 pages in all. The USA patent web site is http://www.uspto.gov

Ted

_____

Sent: Wednesday, November 29, 2006 2:18 AM

annwvyn76] at [hotmail.com; gemma.smith] at [wales.gsi.gov.uk; marilyn.edwards] at [wales.gsi.gov.uk; fdamador] at [comcast.net; sean] at [somewhere.ws; dave] at [annexa.net; HorstEck] at [aol.com; rob] at [rfmicrosystems.co.uk; kp.phys] at [btinternet.com; david] at [dns.org.uk; alexhillgtz] at at [hawkshead.demon.co.uk; tony.clark] at [hotmail.com
Subject: Howard Johnson Patent

To Horst: Do you have this patent available? I may be able to get some clues to experimental design details. However I will start on an idealized inverse Faraday disk mechanism and set up the equations for that. This may perhaps be considered as part of my consultancy for Steorn.


Attachment: us004151431-001.tif

OK thanks, will study in detail today!

Some Further COmments by Dr Eckardt

November 29, 2006


Subject: Fwd: Some Further COmments by Dr Eckardt
Date: Thu, 30 Nov 2006 01:10:40 EST

The problem with the referees is always the same. They do not understand Cartan and ECE thery, but you cannot pack the content of all three monographs in the introduction of a paper :-) We will see how flixible Prof. Hehl is, and if he will contact Hungarian Academy of Science.

Horst

—–Original Message—–

Sent: Wed, 29 Nov 2006 8:30 AM
Subject: Some Further COmments by Dr Eckardt

Dear Prof. Hehl:

These are scholarly comments from my colleague Dr Horst Eckardt, who works for the Siemens Company in Munich. There is no way in which your referee’s comments can be accepted by the scientific community – because these comments assert that a hypotheisis cannot be made or tested experimentally, reductio ad absurdum. Nevetheless I am thankful for yoru efforts at finding a referee. In a historical context, all this is the familiar “shock of the new” process which will eventually settle down to a lot of new physics. IN fact ECE is already generating a huge amount of interest. As Horst Eckardt mentions, there are some THIRTY phenomena which have been used to test ECE experimentally. Your refereee is sublimely unaware of the facts on http://www.aias.us.

Cordially Yours,

Myron Evans Attached Message

Subject: Some comments to earlier emails
Date: Tue, 28 Nov 2006 11:48 PM Jeff, I have gathered now a number of points from your earlier emails and given my comments. For better readability it is in a Word attachment. Regards, Horst ________________________________________________________________________ Check out the new AOL. Most comprehensive set of free safety and security tools, free access to millions of high-quality videos from across the web, free AOL Mail and more.

I woudl agree with this, I think that there is a need to reform the academic refereeing system. Typically one waits months for some trivial reply. During that time several more papers would have been produced, posted and studied by essentially the entire community.

Howard Johnson Patent

November 29, 2006


Subject: Fwd: Howard Johnson Patent
Date: Thu, 30 Nov 2006 01:07:45 EST

OK thanks – I will study this patent today for clues about spinning spacetime.

Myron, the patent can be found under

http://www.rexresearch.com/johnson/1johnson.htm#comments

in particular at location

http://www.rexresearch.com/johnson/1johnson.htm#4151431

in the same document. Fig. 10 shows the overall setup. Johnson also built a linear motor according to the same principle.

Horst

—–Original Message—–

Sent: Wed, 29 Nov 2006 8:17 AM
Subject: Howard Johnson Patent

To Horst: Do you have this patent available? I may be able to get some clues to experimental design details. However I will start on an idealized inverse Faraday disk mechanism and set up the equations for that. This may perhaps be considered as part of my consultancy for Steorn.

________________________________________________________________________ Check out the new AOL. Most comprehensive set of free safety and security tools, free access to millions of high-quality videos from across the web, free AOL Mail and more.

Acceptance of ECE by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences

November 29, 2006


Subject: Acceptance of ECE by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Date: Wed, 29 Nov 2006 02:47:56 EST


Attachment: ahungarianacademyofsciences.pdf

Dear Prof. Hehl (Annalen der Physik),

The attached shows that the Hungarian Academy of Sciences has studied ECE theory and accepted it with high praise. I suggest therefore that you send the paper to the author of the article in the journal of the Hungarian Academy, “Hungarian Studies”, “Description as Self-Reflection in Zsigmond Justh’s Muvesz szerelem”. The reason is that the Hungarian Academy of Sciences has studied and understood the ECE theory. It has also been accepted for publication by the Polish Academy of Science and Arts, and worldwide it is generating millions of hits. Also, the rational method by which any hypotheiss must always be tested is experimental investigation, and as Dr Eckardt mentions, this has been done in about thirty different ways.

MWE

Some Further COmments by Dr Eckardt

November 29, 2006


Subject: Some Further COmments by Dr Eckardt
Date: Wed, 29 Nov 2006 02:30:26 EST

Dear Prof. Hehl:

These are scholarly comments from my colleague Dr Horst Eckardt, who works for the Siemens Company in Munich. There is no way in which your referee’s comments can be accepted by the scientific community – because these comments assert that a hypotheisis cannot be made or tested experimentally, reductio ad absurdum. Nevetheless I am thankful for yoru efforts at finding a referee. In a historical context, all this is the familiar “shock of the new” process which will eventually settle down to a lot of new physics. IN fact ECE is already generating a huge amount of interest. As Horst Eckardt mentions, there are some THIRTY phenomena which have been used to test ECE experimentally. Your refereee is sublimely unaware of the facts on http://www.aias.us.

Cordially Yours,

Myron Evans


Attachment: RespJCook.doc

Jeff,

I have gathered now a number of points from your earlier emails and given my comments. For better readability it is in a Word attachment.

Regards, Horst

Spin connection resonance… by H.Eckardt et al.

November 29, 2006


Subject: Fwd: Annalen der Physik: Spin connection resonance… by H.Eckardt et al.
Date: Wed, 29 Nov 2006 01:59:08 EST

Dear Professor Evans,

In the meantime I got a referee report for your paper, see below. In the light of this report, I am, unfortunately, not able to publish your paper.

I’m sorry for having no better news for your.

Best regards, Friedrich Hehl

Co-Editor Annalen der Physik

— Friedrich W. Hehl, Inst. Theor. Physics * University of Cologne, 50923 Koeln _____//_____ Germany fon +49-221-470-4200 or -4306, fax -5159 hehl] at [thp.uni-koeln.de, http://www.thp.uni-koeln.de/gravitation * Univ. of Missouri, Dept. Phys. & Astr., Columbia, MO, USA --

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% "Spin connection resonance in counter gravitation"

by

H.Eckardt & M.W. Evans (Alpha Institute...)

email: EMyrone] at [aol.com

Typewritten, formulas written by hand (hardly readable), 28 pages, 8 Figures

Referee report

The authors start from the so called Einstein-Cartan-Evans (ECE) field theory and compute certain consequences of it. Therefore I will first address the question whether the ECE-theory is a legitimate starting point for a theory in physics. The authors refer to more than a dozen own publications and it is not easy to see which one is relevant for defining the ECE-theory in an unambiguous way. The editor send me a pdf-file with the title "The spinning and curving of spacetime: The electromagnetic and gravitational fields in the Evans unified field theory" and by M.W. Evans. Obviously, it is published in Found. Phys. Lett. 18 (2005) 431-454.

I will take this paper for getting an idea what the ECE-theory is all about:

It is the analogous as with the paper to referee: More than over 90% of the references are to own papers. This seems to point to a splendid self-isolation. Going through the paper, it is obvious that the starting point of the paper is a Riemann-Cartan geometry of spacetime. Such a geometry features in the well-known viable Einstein-Cartan theory of gravitation, see Gronwald et al. or Trautman, for example. No reference to the Einstein-Cartan theory can be found in the paper of Evans. This is perhaps not so important. But had the author studied papers of the Einstein-Cartan theory better, then he would have noticed that some of his assumptions contradict simple geometrical of physical facts.

1) Already in the abstract we learn that "electromagnetism is the spinning of spacetime". In the text, on p.3, this is made still clearer: "...electromagnetism in known experimentally to be a spin phenomenon". Both statements are, to say the least, without any physical foundation.

From the context it is clear that the author has in mind the Einstein-Cartan theory. In this consistent framework, the energy-momentum of matter is related to the curvature and the spin of matter to the torsion of a Riemann-Cartan spacetime. What the author does essentially, is to substitute in a complete ad hoc manner the spin of matter by the electromagnetic field. Then, of course, electromagnetism couples to torsion. However, in the Einstein-Cartan theory we have a closely knit Lagrange-Noether formalism that allows to derive the field equations form a variational principle, nothing like this is possible in the ECE ansatz. The mentioned substitution is illegitimate and no nice words can be a substitute for a variational principle.

2) What the author calls his fundamental equations are just the definitions of torsion and curvature, respectively, and the corresponding Bianchi identities for a space with vanishing nonmetricity (Riemann-Cartan space). Of course, these equations only become linked to physics by certain additional assumptions. This additional assumption is Evan's ansatz in his Eq.(12). Suddenly an electromagnetic potential A emerges for no reason whatsoever. Why this potential should have anything to do with geometry, is not shown. What the author basically does, is to identify, apart from a factor, the coframe 1-forms of the Riemann-Cartan spacetime with the electromagnetic potential. This doesn't make sense in physics.

All the rest of the theory, follows from this brute force ansatz (12). As stated, this ansatz has no justification nor did the author try to give one.

Clearly, with such procedures one cannot develop a valid physical theory. It is also clear why the author didn't formulate a variational principle that would allow him to get at least consistent field equations. It is just not possible.

There is no doubt in my mind that the ECE-field theory has nothing to do with physics. For that reason I suggest to reject this paper.

Gronwald et al, gr-qc/9602013 (arXiv.org) Trautman, gr-qc/0606062 (arXiv.org) %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

Dear Prof Hehl,

Thanks for finding a referee! Unfortunately this is so obviously a hostile personal attack that I request the paper to be re-refereeed, for example by members of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences which has resoundingly accepted ECE theory recently with high praise (szabo.judit] at [akkrt.hu). The referee is just mis-using anonymity in order to be grossly irrational. In any event the paper is widely read worldwide, and accepted by the colleagues, and will be published elsehere. The detailed rebuttal for the record is as follows.

1) The formulae are legible to everyone except the referee. 2) Cartan himself suggested the basic ansatz to Einstein. 3) The nature of the references is not a legitimate scientific point of criticism. 4) The referee does not even understand that this is a unified field theory. 5) There are no contradictions with geometrical facts because ECE theory is Cartan geometry itself. 6) Tha basic ANSATZ is that electromagnetism is the spinning of space-time. Natural philosophy demands that this postulate be tested experimentally, and this has been accepted procedure for several hundred years. The ECE theory reduces to all the major equations of physics and has been well tested expereimntally. The ansatz is therefore legitimate. 7) The lagrangian of ECE theory is available on http://www.aias.us – the referee is not even aware of this. It is also available in M. W. Evans, “Generally Covariant Unified Field Theory” (Abramis 2005 and 2006), together with the Euler Lagrange equation that produces the Cartan geometry. The Noether Theorem has also been well developed in the context of ECE theory, in which over one hundred papers and books are available. The referee ignores this literature completely. Also, a lagrangian method does not supplant in any way the basic Baconian philosophy. Any method can be used as long as it is tested experimentally. 8) The electromagnetic potential and field are linked by the first Cartan structure equation, so the proportionality consatnt A(0) must be the same, mathematically, for potential and field. The referee subjectively asserts that this ansatz cannot be made. If one cannot make an ansatz, then physics cannot proceed as a subject.

So in summary the referee has just set out to subjectively attack a theory that has been already accepted worldwide. The referee has made no counter arguments, all his remarks are assertions. This brings into question the validity of the anonymous review process. Effectively it has already been replaced by actual peer usage, i.e. ECE theory is already used worldwide, and that is the legitimate refereeing process, not a crude personal attack by a biased individual.

Cordially Yours,

Porf. Myron W. Evans,

Chief Scientific Advisor National Assembly of Wales, British and Commownealth Civil List Scientist.

Suggested Conference Venue

November 28, 2006


Subject: Fwd: Suggested Conference Venue
Date: Tue, 28 Nov 2006 12:49:22 EST

Sorry I have been out of touch for a few days Myron – my PC is still out of operation and being fixed by Rob so I can only communicate from home now when I can borrow a lap-top.

Progress is very rapid again now Myron and a conference, if it can bring all the groups together, should give your work the publicity it deserves. We will all rejoice if you finally get the resources and security you deserve !!

Best, Gareth

________________________________ > >
Date: Tue, 28 Nov 2006 06:22:29 -0500 >
Subject: Suggested Conference Venue > > > This is just a suggestion for a conference venue, maybe for a small preliminary workshop to plan a larger demo /conference. It is at a good hotel and conference venue described on > http://www.craigynoscastle.co.uk > http://www.opera-singer.co.uk/adelina2.htm > http://www.mortonrecords.com/patti/patti_tracks/htm > This is a large early Victorian country house built ny Capt. Rice Davies Powell in 1840 and bought by Adelina Patti in 1878. She is generally consdiered as the most accomplished operatic singer of all time, because of clarity, quality of tone, range and exposition, and control of colour, al lunder exquisite control. It was made by Patti into a large estate receiving visitors such as Edward Prince of Wales, Henry of Battenburg and so on. It contains an elegant private theatre opened on July 12th 1891. I think that this can be used as a lecture theatre for up to 100 people. It had a Dowson gas generator, powering an Otto gas engine and a 110 volt Edison DC generator. Patti was of humble origin, born in Spain to poor Italian parents and a French citizen. She was kind by nature, often helping the local people. She first recorded in about 1906 at the age of 63. There is a CD available on the third site above. By that tiem she was gettign on in years of course, and no longer at her best, but it is still a great voice. The Gramophone and Typewritter Company of London recorded over four days at the Castle. She was a bit scared of the new technology and prayed before every recording. They played back one recording to her and she was astonished adn entranced, saying “Ah c’est moi, Patti”, and stood frozen until the recording was finished. She was universally praised even by rivals and by severe critics such as George Bernard Shaw, and universally admired. She sang for Victoria for a quarter century, and to many other Heads of State, receiving many honours. She studied with Maurice Strakosch and the terms “coloratura” and “bel canto” developed from her singing. This style goes back almost to Mozart. The Castle is easy to reach from the M4 and the London Airports. > As written, this is just a thought, but it is a really beautiful setting as can be seen from the above websites. My grandfather, William Evans lived in quite a lareg house – “Y Grithig” – almost opposite the Castle, and my Potter great-grandfather in Penwyllt in a small cottage. A private road was built from the Swansea to Brecon railway from Penwyllt Station down to Craig y Nos, and lavishly decorated for Patti. > I have organized many conferences for RSC and SERC CCP5, EMLG and so forth. The Munich Workshop is an excellent start by Horst Eckardt.

_________________________________________________________________ Be one of the first to try Windows Live Mail. http://ideas.live.com/programpage.aspx?versionId=5d21c51a-b161-4314-9b0e-4911fb2b2e6d=

OK thanks Gareth, I think that a small meeting of key players should be arranged first at the Castle to carry out consultancy work which I have been offered today. I am not able to travel very far (medical advice, I still draw disability allowance) and this is why I suggest venues around here. Gari Owen is situated near London and could cary out consultancy at a London venue. Gari is a professional consultant. Of course I can consult via e mail at any time for any party.

Conference at the Castle

November 28, 2006


Subject: Conference at the Castle
Date: Tue, 28 Nov 2006 12:44:48 EST

This seems to be a lovely castle. Have you or David already an idea when we can hold such a conference? We can use it for further coordination of the planned research activities.

Horst

—–Original Message—–

Sent: Tue, 28 Nov 2006 12:22 PM
Subject: Suggested Conference Venue

This is just a suggestion for a conference venue, maybe for a small preliminary workshop to plan a larger demo /conference. It is at a good hotel and conference venue described on

http://www.craigynoscastle.co.uk http://www.opera-singer.co.uk/adelina2.htm http://www.mortonrecords.com/patti/patti_tracks/htm

This is a large early Victorian country house built ny Capt. Rice Davies Powell in 1840 and bought by Adelina Patti in 1878. She is generally consdiered as the most accomplished operatic singer of all time, because of clarity, quality of tone, range and exposition, and control of colour, al lunder exquisite control. It was made by Patti into a large estate receiving visitors such as Edward Prince of Wales, Henry of Battenburg and so on. It contains an elegant private theatre opened on July 12th 1891. I think that this can be used as a lecture theatre for up to 100 people. It had a Dowson gas generator, powering an Otto gas engine and a 110 volt Edison DC generator. Patti was of humble origin, born in Spain to poor Italian parents and a French citizen. She was kind by nature, often helping the local people. She first recorded in about 1906 at the age of 63. There is a CD available on the third site above. By that tiem she was gettign on in years of course, and no longer at her best, but it is still a great voice. The Gramophone and Typewritter Company of London recorded over four days at the Castle. She was a bit scared of the new technology and prayed before every recording. They played back one recording to her and she was astonished adn entranced, saying “Ah c’est moi, Patti”, and stood frozen until the recording was finished. She was universally praised even by rivals and by severe critics such as George Bernard Shaw, and universally admired. She sang for Victoria for a quarter century, and to many other Heads of State, receiving many honours. She studied with Maurice Strakosch and the terms “coloratura” and “bel canto” developed from her singing. This style goes back almost to Mozart. The Castle is easy to reach from the M4 and the London Airports. As written, this is just a thought, but it is a really beautiful setting as can be seen from the above websites. My grandfather, William Evans lived in quite a lareg house – “Y Grithig” – almost opposite the Castle, and my Potter great-grandfather in Penwyllt in a small cottage. A private road was built from the Swansea to Brecon railway from Penwyllt Station down to Craig y Nos, and lavishly decorated for Patti. I have organized many conferences for RSC and SERC CCP5, EMLG and so forth. The Munich Workshop is an excellent start by Horst Eckardt.

________________________________________________________________________ Check out the new AOL. Most comprehensive set of free safety and security tools, free access to millions of high-quality videos from across the web, free AOL Mail and more.

I think that we can convene the conference at everyone’s convenience. Some previsouly agreed consultancy work can also be carried during the conference. This would be most efficient I think.

Suggested Conference Venue

November 28, 2006


Subject: Suggested Conference Venue
Date: Tue, 28 Nov 2006 06:22:29 EST

This is just a suggestion for a conference venue, maybe for a small preliminary workshop to plan a larger demo /conference. It is at a good hotel and conference venue described on

http://www.craigynoscastle.co.uk http://www.opera-singer.co.uk/adelina2.htm http://www.mortonrecords.com/patti/patti_tracks/htm

This is a large early Victorian country house built ny Capt. Rice Davies Powell in 1840 and bought by Adelina Patti in 1878. She is generally consdiered as the most accomplished operatic singer of all time, because of clarity, quality of tone, range and exposition, and control of colour, al lunder exquisite control. It was made by Patti into a large estate receiving visitors such as Edward Prince of Wales, Henry of Battenburg and so on. It contains an elegant private theatre opened on July 12th 1891. I think that this can be used as a lecture theatre for up to 100 people. It had a Dowson gas generator, powering an Otto gas engine and a 110 volt Edison DC generator. Patti was of humble origin, born in Spain to poor Italian parents and a French citizen. She was kind by nature, often helping the local people. She first recorded in about 1906 at the age of 63. There is a CD available on the third site above. By that tiem she was gettign on in years of course, and no longer at her best, but it is still a great voice. The Gramophone and Typewritter Company of London recorded over four days at the Castle. She was a bit scared of the new technology and prayed before every recording. They played back one recording to her and she was astonished adn entranced, saying “Ah c’est moi, Patti”, and stood frozen until the recording was finished. She was universally praised even by rivals and by severe critics such as George Bernard Shaw, and universally admired. She sang for Victoria for a quarter century, and to many other Heads of State, receiving many honours. She studied with Maurice Strakosch and the terms “coloratura” and “bel canto” developed from her singing. This style goes back almost to Mozart. The Castle is easy to reach from the M4 and the London Airports. As written, this is just a thought, but it is a really beautiful setting as can be seen from the above websites. My grandfather, William Evans lived in quite a lareg house – “Y Grithig” – almost opposite the Castle, and my Potter great-grandfather in Penwyllt in a small cottage. A private road was built from the Swansea to Brecon railway from Penwyllt Station down to Craig y Nos, and lavishly decorated for Patti. I have organized many conferences for RSC and SERC CCP5, EMLG and so forth. The Munich Workshop is an excellent start by Horst Eckardt.

Advantages of ECE over Gauge Theory

November 28, 2006


Subject: Plans for Paper 73 : Advantages of ECE over Gauge Theory
Date: Tue, 28 Nov 2006 04:39:03 EST

In paper 73 I plan to detail the various advantages of the ECE theory over gauge theory. These advantages have become clear over the past decade or so. I first began to work with gauge theory in about 1992 after moving from Cornell to UNCC. At that time the gauge theory of electrodynamics was almost always asserted to be U(1) invariant. This is the Maxwell Heaviside (MH) theory proposed by Maxwell using Hamilton’s quaternions and put into vector form by Heaviside, one of my predecessors on the Civil List. Heaviside also proposed that the vector potential A in classical electrodynamics be an abstract entity, only the fields E and B are physical in that view. The latter is the opposite of the view of Faraday and Maxwell, who considered the potential (electrotonic state of Faraday, another of my predecessors on the Civil List) to be physical. The Heaviside point of view evolved into the gauge principle in the twentieth century, mainly through the ideas of Weyl. This principle states that the action is invariant under the gauge transformation of any field. This appeared to be effective until I proposed the ECE spin field B(3) in Physica B, 182, 227 and 237 (1992). The B(3) field implies an O(3) gauge invariance for electrodynamics as in the work I did from about 1992 to 2003 (see collected papers on http://www.aias.us). In paper 71 an invariance principle was introduced with the intention of replacing the gauge principle. In papers 71 and 72 some applications were developed of the invariance principle. In paper 73 some details of its advantages over the gauge principle will be developed. Its main advantage is that it is based directly on the fundamentals of geometry, so there is no need to introduce the abstract internal space of gauge theory as proposed by Yang and Mills in 1954. The abstract space is superfluous to Einsteinian general relativity, but ECE is based directly on general relativity, i.e. on geometry. Thus ECE is preferrred to gauge theory by Ockham’s Razor of natural philosophy, a principle that states that the simpler of two theories must always be used in physics. In a sense, gauge theory makes general relativity more complicated than it need be but does not succeed in field unification. I have shown in considerable detail that the U(1) gauge theory has many flaws. Others have also shown this. Notably, U(1) runs into difficulties with the various Aharonov Bohm effects, Sagnac effect and so forth. I have been at pains to choose those experiments with which to test ECE that defeat U(1). This is an effort to show the advantages of ECE over U(1). I have gradually been obliged by logic to abandon the gauge principle and therefore searched for a principle to replace it. I proposed the invariance principle in paper 71 because it is based directly on an invariant of ECE theory and Cartan geometry – the tetrad postulate. The latter is frame invariant (the covariant derivative of the tetrad always vanishes in all frames of reference). It was shown from this property that the tetrad field (i.e. all fields) must include a phase alpha wich cannot depend on distance and time and therefore is “global” in the rather vague but received terminology which I follow for convenience – “local” and “global”. The invariance principle leads directly to all the wave equations of physics through the ECE wave equation of generally covariant unified field theory. These include the Proca equation, which the U(1) gauge theory fails to produce. There are also major problems with U(1) gauge theory in canonical quantization of the electromagnetic four-potential, these stem from the neglect of photon mass, first proposed by Einstein. Another major defect of U(1) gauge theory is that it restricts states of polarization in free space – leading to the false conclusion that only two transverse states exist, and leading to loss of manifest covariance. ECE theory clears up these problems straightforwardly. In the area of weak field physics gauge theory has recently run into formidable problems, in that the Higgs boson has not been found at the predicted energy at CERN. The Higgs mechanism must therefore be abandoned. Again, ECE clears up this problem because it does not use the Higgs mechanism (e.g. volume one). Similarly, spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) is not used in ECE theory, and the CERN results also cast doubt on SSB. In the area of strong field physics, asymptotic freedom must be introduced, and again this is not used in ECE. All these late 20th century concepts are superfluous to general relativity, i.e. make physics more complicated and not simpler. Simplicity is what is sought in Ockham’s Razor. The simpler the theory, the better, provided it is effective of course. ECE gives a unified description of the fundamental force fields of physics by choosing the appropriate mathematical representation space, a concept introduced by Cartan in 1913 (spinors). This method is by now described in great detail in the papers and books on http://www.aias.us and available in all good book shops. The ECE theory is always based on geometry. The fiber bundle of gauge theory is replaced by the tangent bundle of Cartan geometry. The latter is based on the concept of a tangent space of n dimensions at any point P to a base manifold of n dimensions. The tangent space replaces the abstract internal space of gauge theory. The internal space is completely “detached” from geometry and was introduced in an arbitrary way in this sense. Various properties of the tangent space and base manifold then represent physical fields of physics, or natural philosophy. This is pure geometry and is therefore rigorous general relativity.


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